Chi Phat – Eco-Tourist Site, Koh Kong province, Cambodia

(wrote in 2008 by Ty Theavy, edited by Mr. Jack Smith from England)

“History of Chi Phat”

Photos: From internet.

One of the waterfalls that can be visited from Chi PhatKoh Kong: Many first-time overseas visitors to Chi Phat village eco-tourism sites have little idea of what they will actually encounter. This commune, which accommodates around 500 families, is interesting because the people have come here to live from many other regions, mainly because they were attracted by work during the time of deforestation and logging. After the creation of the Cardamoms Conservation park, logging declined and after that Chi Phat village had fewer opportunities for work.

The majority of the villagers are quite poor, and so have few other ways to earn a living unless they illegally hunt wildlife. But we were also concerned that the wildlife would be in danger of becoming extinct. This is the reason for the creation of the first CBET office established by Chi Phat Community; we believe we can improve the local livelihood,  preserve and share our culture,  preserve natural resources and wildlife, and encourage cross-culture exchanges through the development of Eco Tourism. Based Eco-Tourism in Chat Phat is delighted to warmly welcome you in visiting our many tour programs, such as jungle trekking and camping to photograph wild pigs, monkeys, elephants and the many other species of wildlife you can see; mountain biking across jungle streams and water falls to ancient burial jar sites which still hold the mystery of who and why they were created; tour boat trips to see a diverse number of different bird species; and refreshing swims in mountain-fed rivers which create beautiful waterfalls near the village. A very special experience is if your tour is around mid November when you can experience the color and excitement of our local Water Festival ceremony. And because we are interested in cultural exchange, you will probably be happy to share your experience by participating in English lessons during the evening classes for the poorer villager’s children and CBET service member students. You can also tour our classroom and photograph our happy students and so make a special souvenir of your time here.

Chi Phat Commune is physically located southwest of Phnom Penh city, Cambodia. It is one of the Thmor Bang District’s communes in Koh Kong Province with total population about 500 families. It is divided into 4 villages such as Chi Phat village, Toeuk La Ork village, Cham Sla village and Kom Lot village.

Most residents have always lived on their farms, and hunt wildlife for food; hunting has now been made illegal. It also has a local market area, which is dominated by Vietnamese, Chinese and other venders which come from many different places. You can buy something from the local market with dollars or Cambodian currency. The exchange rate here is about 1$ equal 4000 Riels. The people are friendly but they do not understand English very well, or not at all; the CBET organization’s staff gaining English with the help of facilitators from the Phnom Penh office. The climate is very warm during the days and pleasantly cool at night, particularly in December and January. The village even has cell phone coverage especially for 012 and 016 (Cambodian Mobitel and Hello companies); foreign visitors also report their roaming phones from overseas have good reception. The CBET office and guest house also has wireless Internet available.

Chi Phat is named after a holy man named So Phat. It was called So Phat Village.  It was changed into Chi Phat because in Cambodian Culture someone who is a sanga, (a holy man) is called Chi. this location comes from the story says: So Phat was a King. One day he was separated from his brothers by a terrible storm while trekking in the jungle near Stroerng Prath Stream and then he lost his way in the jungle to reach this area.

He had decided to be a Sanga since he could not find his way home. after that the recue team came seek for him, and reach the same place to camp living here. Long time later on, they captured him as a holy man and invited him to be a village’s head from then on.

In 1979, there were only 10 families in this village. They made a living by trading fish for rice from Viet Nam soldiers (at that time this village was supervised by Viet Nam administration). In 1993, after the free market opened, this village started to increase its population. People came from everywhere in Cambodia because it was a good place to log. Now this village has a static population of 180 families.

Chi Phat  in Pol Pot regime

In Pol Pot regime Chi Phat was a base village. This meant that the village had a hospital and a factory and the villagers had enough rice.  However, they were forced to live in a special site (where the local market of Chi Phat is now). The female and male were not allowed to live together (there were two pavilions; one for women and one for men).  The people were patrolled by soldiers every night. They were waked by bell at 4 am in the morning to assemble before farming.

They were sent to work for 12 hours a day at the Bald Mountain farm and to another farm on the other side of the river in Toek La Ork Village. There were only 800 dwellers living and working in Chi Phat during that time. Majority of them were taken at rifle point to a killing field in Toek La Ork and Tmar Domrey without good reason. They were replaced by the people from other villages. The people also worked extra around their home to grow the cassavas.

The street here Chi Phat was constructed in 1976.  The Khmer Rouge brought 5 tractors in order to transport the food grown in Chi Phat.

After Pol Pot collapsed, this village was under supervised by Vietnamese troops. And it was restructured into Commune with 4 villages, Chi Phat village, Cham Sla village, Kam Lort and Toek La Ork village. The people started to boom up increasingly in 1993.

More infos:


History related to Chi Phat Area: Folk Tales and the Origin of Place Names

By Ty Theavy, Monday 7 march 2011
(Written by Ty Theavy, edited by Nancy from New Zealand)

Once up on a time, there were 3 brothers who were kings. They always had different interests in their lives: the oldest brother king was Sdach Sneng Krobey was interested in war and cared only about treasures and control of his kingdom. The Middle brother was named Minn. He did not care so much about kingly duties, but instead he liked jungle trekking and hunting. The youngest brother king was Sophat, and he was very spiritual, and liked doing good deeds and meditating. Despite their very different personalities, they loved each other and often spent time together.

One day, the three brother kings decided that they would make an excursion into the jungles of their kingdom by a riverboat to enjoy birds, monkeys and the other wildlife of their kingdoms. They decided that they would make this journey all by themselves, and left behind servants and guards, preparing a boat for themselves alone.

They started on their journey the next day very early in the morning, navigating their boat along the Pi Phot stream (which we now call Stoueng Chi Phat) which is a large sea inlet. As the journey progressed they were very happy as they viewed the scenery, especially the new forests they were planting on the both sides of the river. They moved up the river as night fell and were surrounded by dull clouds like the fogs of December, and they began to feel quite chilled. As the new day dawned, to their amazement, they saw a scarlet ball of fire which at first they thought was the sun rising in the east, but which moved about on the river from shore to shore like a scarlet piece of the fire, and its light created a rainbow of 7 colors in the mists of the waves their boat made. Sophat, the youngest, said “Let’s have breakfast, it is suitable time to have it now” and unpacked their meal, a traditional rice pack covered by the banana leaves. After a breakfast on the beautiful morning, they continued their boat journey until they reached another stream, the Stoeung Khse Sonthoeung Prath (which we now call Stoeung Prath) where they docked their boat and made a camp, then began a day of jungle trekking.

The three brother kings had a wonderful day of trekking, watching the birds and monkeys and other animals, and in the late afternoon they returned to their camp by the side of the stream. The three brother were very tired from the trekking as they relaxed under a pavilion of palms, but they were also very excited and could not sleep, and also the sounds of the jungle – leaves whistling as they were blown by wind, and the many and varied calls and voices of the jungle creatures both near and distant – kept them awake. It was then that So Phat decided to tell a story, and asked his oldest brother: “Brother! Do you know why this inlet is called Stoeung Khse Sonthoeung Prath? I know the old story but was so excited this morning that I forgot to tell you about it!” The oldest brother replied. “Well, do not delay, please tell us this old story at once!”


SoPhat then told the story of Prah Kor and Prah Keo.

A long time ago, this place at the Stoeung Khse Sonthoeung Prath was where Prah Kor and Prah Keo’s hid from the King of Siam Kin after Prah Kor, the magical bull of Lovek, lost a fighting competition with Siam’s bull. As you know ( SoPhat said) Prah Kor was the champion fighting bull of Lovek, and the Siam king was jealous of the Khmer people for having this great bull.  When Prah Kor was defeated by the Siam bull, the King of Siam wanted to capture Prah Kor and take him away to further humiliate the Khmer people.  It was at this place on the stream that Prah Kor tried to hide among other cattle from the King. But the King of Siam’s fortune teller predicted that Prah Kor would be hiding in this place, and soldiers came to capture Prah Kor with magic ropes that Prah Kor could not fight. As a result, Prah Kor was captured by Siam at this very place on the stream Stoeung Khse Sonthoeung Prath.

The brothers were so interested in the story telling that they did not notice how the weather was suddenly turning into bad. The sky became abnormally dark, lightning flashed, and thunder sounded loudly over the jungle. The brothers became afraid and trembled, and they embraced each other for protection and comfort. A heavy rain started to fall like the downpours of the rainy season. Even though it was only late afternoon, a darkness came upon the land and suddenly a terrible tempest arose which physically picked up the brothers and tossed them through the air, where they fell into unconsciousness.

It was early the next morning when the oldest brother king awoke, and looking around him, sobbed bitterly because such is a human’s destiny! To be born as a king but still to bear such grief! Is this a punishment from something we have done?” The oldest brother king stayed in that place and wept, because he thought he would never see his brothers again.

But when Minn, the middle brother awoke, he found the great tempest had flown him many miles from the camp along the Stoeung Khse Sonthoeung Prath.  Minn began to try to return to that place, but could not find the trail in the jungle. But Minn did find a place that was rich in elephants, and there was a big pond. With his morale flagging and believing he would never find his way back to his palace, Minn made his mind up to settle there and to live as a simple hunter, and to put aside his memories of his past life as a king.  Today we call the pond and place where Minn settled Trapeng Taminn (Minn’s pond). There is also another pond nearby, to which Minn often brought tusks to wash, and is called Trapang Tram Phluk.

What happened to So Phat, the youngest brother king? In the storm So Phat was swept by the floods of the wild rainstorm onto an island full of Chak trees. This island was normally flooded deeply, but like a miracle, the flood was lessened and provided So Phat with a place to stand out of the rising water, and the miracle was because of So Phat’s spiritual nature and his many good deeds. Also, the island was magical and actually floated on the river! The island that So Phat’s life was saved on is called Koh Trapang Vong.

Sophat was on the island for a week without food. Fortunately, the island was brought to the river bank by a school of dragon fish. So Phat left the island and made his way onto the riverbank and into the jungle, but he still couldn’t find the way to his palace. He missed his brothers so much, and he wandered aimlessly in the jungle because of his sadness. Eventually, he reached a hill that is near Chi Phat village, and came to a river called Chhay Chray or Chhay Chray Samathi, which had many rapids. This place was quite beautiful by the rapids. In the Sangkum Reas Niyum Regime, many Durian trees were grown here, and so some people called this place the Rapid of Durian (Chhay Thurian).

SoPhat gave up finding the way to his palace, and he decided to stay by this river and do yoga every day to and to use his spiritual mind to try and find his brothers. He sat every day in meditation under a large shade Banyan tree by the rapid. Nearby the rapids was a high waterfall of some 6 -12 meters. SoPhat would go to the waterfall and take a handful of the water flowing down. One day as he did this, he cried “If I will never see my brothers again, I wish my heart would be made content by seeing creatures of the jungle that I so love”. Suddenly, a flock of deer appeared and drank water at a rapid by the waterfall. This seemed like an answer to his prayers, and so the waterfall where Sophat made his wish with a fistfull of water is called Chhay Toek Viet, or Holy Water Rapid), while the rapid where the deer were drinking, is called the Chhay Konn Kdann, or the Fawn Rapid. At this rapid today you may be able to see a rock that is like the figure of a fawn.

But back in the Kingdoms of the three brother Kings, royal officials at the Palace had immediately become worried about the disappearance of the king brothers during their journey hiking. The Palace officials made search groups in order to find them, but after a long time they found only the oldest king, and even the older brother king had no idea where Sophat and Minn were.

The search for Minn and Sophat wasn’t easy. Months ago the rescue teams went out; they went through out the canopy forests and savanna grass land, and searched all the streams. They came to one stream there were very large rapids where they fell and lid along so they called it The Buttock Rapid (Chhay Ors Kuot). This rapid was only 2 killometers from Chi Phat, and many of the Chi Phat villagers came to swim and bathe or take refreshment almost every evening. But the search teams still couldn’t find Sophat, nor Minn. They lost their way in the jungle; some of them were eaten by tigers, and the place where they were attacked by tigers was called The Tiger’s Waiting Place (Peam Cham Tak). Another team could not find enough food as they searched, so they decided to stop and camp to hunt for food. This place by a stream was rich in catfish, which they caught and ate, and they called the stream O Spot.

After a long time, the searchers came to exactly the place where Sophat now lived and found him, but they didn’t recognize Sophat. To test that Sophat was the young brother king that they searched for, they decided to stay and live in this place themselves. The searchers lived there for many years and became settled in that place, and they married with the local villagers until the place became a huge village. After many, many years they came to realize that Sophat was the lost brother king that they searched for, and SoPhat was invited to be a leader of the village. The village was first called Sophat village, but then became known as Chi Phat which refrred to SoPhat as a holy man.

The oldest brother king never heard that the searchers had found his young brother because that team stayed in the place called Chi Phat, and for many years he worried about his lost brothers. He decided to search for his brothers on his own, but he went out disguised as a simple peasant farmer as he stayed in a village he came to on his search. During his stay he sought refuge with an aged couple, and he stayed there for many months. The oldest brother king was very interested in the house of the aged couple because it had very smooth clean floors made from betel nut tree; the oldest brother king named this village Cham Sla Village. This Cham Sla village was originally located in Areng zone, Thmor Donpov commune, Thmor Bang district, Koh Kong province. But in the Pol Pot regime the villagers were taken by the Khmer Rouge to new location, which is near Chi Phat now.

The oldest brother king decided to leave Cham Sla to continue his search for his brothers, and he journeyed to another village. The villagers in this new place craft a living as farmers and vendors. Among the vendors were a majority of females who sold Loert sweets, and the oldest brother king became very fond of this delicious sweet. For that reason the village became known as Phuom Loert ( Loert sweet village); and after that it became Komloert village.

After many months of searching on his own, the oldest brother king still couldn’t find his brothers, so he went back to his palace very sad and despondant.

As time went on, the whole country became involved in war when Siam invaded the oldest brother king’s country. The oldest brother king and his army could not win against the Siam, and the Siamese army eventually took over the oldest brother king’s palace. The oldest brother king ordered that all the royal property was taken away to hide in different places. Some treasures were carried on boats, and some was buried in the pond near his palace. The pond where he buried his treasures is called a Treasure Pond (Tra Pang Kom Nop), and the stream where his boats carried away the is called a Boat Stream (Tra pang Touk). The oldest brother king himself fled to a separate and secret hideout.

The Siamese armies overcame the population and gathered the kingdom’s people together. They made them slaves and forced them to speak Thai; if didn’t do so they were assassinated. The place where this happened to the Khmer villagers was at a plateau village called Siem Krom, but long after the Siamese left this village’s name was changed because the people hated this background, and the village name was changed to Toeuk La Ork village. The name refers to heavy rainfall which made the water in the ponds of this village murky.

Not all the villagers were captured by the Siamese; a number went hiding in the jungle near a stream and made a living on hunting wildlife and weaving the silk cloths and Kramas. When the war with the Siamese finished they returned back to their home town, but then the village was populated by new dwellers, who had named Loom Village (Phuom Okey) because it had many weavers.

The oldest brother king was not very lucky in hiding from the Siamese. The brother king was very scared as the Siamese came closer to his hiding place in a large buffalo’s horn, and he was found and killed by the Siam.

What happened to the treasures of the oldest king that he had taken with him to the hideout? After he was killed by the Siam, the oldest brother king’s soul went back to the aged couple that he had lived within Cham Sla Village. The oldest brother king’s spirit appeared to the aged couple in their dreams and it said “Do you recognize me? I am the one who used to stay at your house. I think you both are good people, you are very poor, but what good people you are, as you are both so honest. Let me tell you where to dig and find my treasures my treasures”. The aged husband of the couple woke trembling. “What is the matter?” his wife asked. “I have had a dream that the oldest brother king Sdach Sneng Krobey let us to dig his treasures” the husband whispered into his wife’s ear. “I also had this dream!” his wife replied. At the dawn the next day the couple went away from their cottage, and spotted the track of the trail as was in their dream. They came to the place they were shown in the dream, and they dug quietly. Immediately they saw a big basket within full of valuable silver and jewelry. They rushed to dig at another field following their dream, and found a big jar full of gold.

But suddenly as the aged couple dug the treasures, the ground beneath them began to shake in a large earthquake, and the treasures were consumed by the trembling earth. The aged couple became afraid and ran away. The villagers saw this and asked the old couple what had happened, and they told the villagers the story of the dreams and finding the treasure. So from then on, the fields were called Silver Field (Veal Brak) and Gold Field (Veal Meas). Other people also call these fields Veal Ta Meas and Veal Ta Bra. These fields are about 13 kilometers from Chi Phat.

អត្ថន័យនៃការចងខ្សែអំបោះ នៅក្នុងជំនឿខ្មែរ

អត្ថបទដកស្រង់ចេញពីគេហទំព័ររបស់អ្នកស្រី កែវ ចន្ទ័បូរណ៍

“តើការចងអំបោះពណ៌ស ឬក្រហម នៅកដៃ ចង្កេះ ឬនៅ ក មានអត្ថន័យយ៉ាងម៉េច នៅក្នុងប្រពៃណីខ្មែរ?”

ដោយអ្នកស្រី កែវ ចន្ទ័បូរណ៍


១/ អំពីការចងអំបោះក្រហម ឬកន្សែងក្រហម៖

នៅសម័យមុនព្រហ្មញ្ញសាសនានិងពុទ្ធសាសនាលាតឥទ្ធិពលមកលើប្រទេសខ្មែរ ពលរដ្ឋនៅទឹកដីឥណ្ឌូចិន ប្រកាន់យក ជំនឿមួយហៅថា ជំនឿវិញ្ញាណនិយម ឬជំនឿអារក្សអ្នកតា (Animism)គឺការមានជំនឿ លើវិញ្ញាណក្ខន្ខ័ សក្តិសិទ្ធិ រក្សាទឹកដីព្រៃភ្នំនិងជីវិតមនុស្សសត្វ។ នៅក្នុងជំនឿនេះ គ្មានព្រះអាទិទេព ឬព្រះពុទ្ធទេ មានតែវិញ្ញាណក្ខ័ន្ធ សក្តិសិទ្ធិ រក្សាលោក ដូចជា អ្នកតា (អ្នករក្សាព្រៃភ្នំនិងសត្វ ដែលរស់នៅអាស្រ័យព្រៃភ្នំ ជាជម្រក) អារក្ស (អ្នករក្សាទឹ និងសត្វ ដែលរស់នៅ អាស្រ័យទឹក ជាជម្រក) មេមត់ (អ្នករក្សាវិន័យ និងរបៀបរៀបរយ ប្រចាំមណ្ឌលរស់នៅ) ព្រះភូមិ (អ្នករក្សាដីភូមិ ចំការដំណាំ) ជំនាងផ្ទះ (អ្នករក្សាការពារ លំនៅស្ថាន) ម្រេញគង្វាល (អ្នករក្សាកុមារ និងជនដែល មិនអាច ជួយខ្លួនឯងបាន ដូចជាអ្នកពិការ និងចាស់ជរា) ជាដើម។ ចំណែកវិញ្ញាណ ដែលបំផ្លាញលោក មាន មេធ្មប់ (ជាយមរាជ ឬជាស្តេចនៃព្រលឹងសៅម៉ាន ទាំងឡាយ) ព្រាយ អាប(ដែលជាសេនា ទាំងឡាយ របស់មេធ្មប់ ដែលមេធ្មប់ អាចបញ្ជាបានគ្រប់ពេល)។ ក្រោយមក បន្ទាប់ពីមាន ការឆ្លងវប្បធម៌ ពីប្រទេសឥណ្ឌា ខ្មែរបានទទួលឥទ្ធិពល បន្ថែមទៀត ពីជំនឿថា មានយក្ស មានបិសាច នៅក្នុងជំនឿ វិញ្ញាណនិយម នេះដែរ។

(សូមអានបន្ថែម អំពីជំនឿនេះ នៅទំព័រ

នៅក្នុងជំនឿ វិញ្ញាណនិយម នេះ អ្នកស្រុកនិយម ប្រើពណ៌ក្រហម ជាតំណាង ឬទិ្ធអំណាច រាសី ឬជាមន្តអាគម រក្សាឬទ្ធិអំណាច ឬរាសី។ ឧទាហរណ៍ អ្នកតាក្រហមក មានន័យថា អ្នកតាដែលមាន កន្សែងក្រហម រុំជាប់នៅលើ ក ជាកន្សែង ដែលមានចារយ័ន្ត ជាភាសាមន្តអាគម រក្សាឬទ្ធិអំណាច និងរាសី របស់ពលរដ្ឋដែលប្រកាន់អំពើល្អ។ ប្រពៃណីនៃការចារយ័ន្ត នៅលើ កន្សែងក្រហមនេះ មាននៅសេសសល់ រហូតដល់សព្វថ្ងៃ ដូចជាការចារយ័ន្ត លើក្រណាត់សំពត់ក្រហម ដើម្បីដាក់តាំង នៅលើជញ្ជាំងផ្ទះ សម្រាប់ការពាររាសី របស់ម្ចាស់ផ្ទះ និងអ្នកដែលរស់នៅ ក្នុងផ្ទះនោះ ឬការចារយ័ន្ត លើកន្សែងក្រហម ដើម្បីប្រគល់ជូន ដល់កងយុទ្ធជន ដែលត្រូវចេញ ទៅសមរភូមិ ដើម្បីជា ការប្រសិទ្ធពរ សុំអោយ មានឬទ្ធិ មានជ័យ ពេលប្រតិបត្តិការ ការពារជាតិ។ ជួនកាលទៀត យើងមានចារយន្ត័ លើកន្សែង អោយអ្នកកីឡាប្រដាល់ សម្រាប់ជួតក្បាល ចងនៅដើមដៃ ឬចងចង្កេះ មុនពេលឡើងសៃវៀនប្រកួតម្តងៗ។ មានកាលខ្លះទៀត មេមត់ ឬអ្នកចូលរូបមេមត់ ដែលជា វិញ្ញាណរក្សា វិន័យនិងសណ្តាប់ធ្នាប់ ប្រចាំភូមិ ច្រើនជាអ្នកផ្តល់ គំនិតអប់រំប្រដៅទូន្មាន ដល់មនុស្សដែលធ្វើខុស មនុស្សមានជម្ងឺ ដើម្បីកែ ឬព្យាបាល អោយជានា មកល្អប្រសើរ ធម្មតាមកវិញ។ យើងច្រើនឃើញ រូបសំណាករបស់មេមត់ មានស្លៀកក្បិនខ្មៅ (តំណាងអោយ ភាពម៉ឺងម៉ាត់) ឬក្បិនក្រហម (តំណាងអោយរាសី ឬឬទ្ធិអំណាច) ពាក់អាវក្រហម បង់ក្រមាក្រហម នៅក្នុងខ្ទម កណ្តាលទីធ្លាក្នុងភូមិ។

ដោយសារហេតុថា ការប្រើកន្សែង ជាបន្ទះក្រណាត់ មានផ្ទាំងធំពេក អាចអោយទើសទាក់ ពិបាកនឹងរក្សា ជាពិសេស ពេលធ្វើដំណើរទៅច្បាំង ឬប្រតិបត្តិការងារ មមាញឹកផ្សេងៗ ដើម្បីការពារស្រុកភូមិ អ្នកស្រុកខ្លះ ក៏បែកគំនិត វេញអំបោះក្រហម ចងកាថាយ័ន្ត ចងចែកាច់ ភ្លុកដំរី ដែលគេប្រសិទ្ធីរួចហើយ ដើម្បីយកមកចងដៃ ចងចង្កេះ ពាក់ឆៀង ឬចងបន្តោង នៅក ជាជំនួសវិញ។ នៅក្នុងជំនឿនេះ រូបចម្លាក់អ្នកតា មេមត់ទាំងឡាយ ច្រើនស្លៀកក្បិនពណ៌ក្រហម ហើយបង់ក ជួតក្រមា ឬស្ពាយឆៀង ដោយកន្សែង ពណ៌ក្រហម ជានិច្ច។ ចំណែក ខ្ទមអ្នកតា ឬខ្ទមមេមត់ រមែងមាន ប្រក់ក្បឿងក្រហម ឬមានដំបូលក្រហម ជានិច្ចដែរ។ នៅក្នុងទំនៀមទម្លាប់នេះ គេច្រើននិយាយសំដៅ ទៅលើ អារក្សអ្នកតាព្រះភូមិ  ថាជាវិញ្ញាណ តំណាងភេទបុរស គ្រប់គ្រងផ្នែកការពារទឹកដីស្រុកភូមិ ហើយមេមត់ និងជំនាងផ្ទះ ជាវិញ្ញាណ តំណាងភេទនារី គ្រប់គ្រងផ្នែករក្សាកូនចៅ ខាងវិន័យសណ្តាប់ធ្នាប់។ ចំណែកម្រេញគង្វាល ជាវិញ្ញាណ រក្សាការពារ កុមារ ជនជរា និង ជនពិការ។ ចំណែកមេធ្មប់ ជាវិញ្ញាណយាយី ច្រើនមានភេទប្រុស ប្រៀបបានទៅនឹងយមរាជ ឬយមបាល។ ខ្មោចបិសាចជា វិញ្ញាណយាយីភេទប្រុស ព្រាយនិងអាប ជាតំណាង វិញ្ញាណយាយី ភេទស្រី។ ជំនឿវិញ្ញាណនិយមនេះ ក៏មាននៅសេសសល់ ជាបន្តៗមក ពាសពេញប្រទេសខ្មែរ លាវ ថៃ ភូមា បឹងក្លាដែស ឥណ្ឌូនេស៊ី និងវៀតណាមខាងត្បូង ជាពិសេស នៅសង្គមដែលមាន ទំនៀមទម្លាប់ប្រពៃណី រស់នៅ បែបបុរាណនៅឡើយ។

២/ អំពីការចងអំបោះពណ៌ស៖

នៅពេលសាសនាព្រាហ្ម ចាប់លាតឥទ្ធិពល មកដល់ប្រទេសខ្មែរ តាមរយៈអនុភាព នៃព្រះចៅគ្រប់គ្រងផែនដី ពលរដ្ឋយើង បានកត់សំគាល់ ឃើញថា ពពួកព្រាហ្ម កាន់កិច្ចការរាជវាំង អមមហាក្សត្រ ប្រចាំនគរ សុទ្ធតែ ស្លៀកពាក់ ពណ៌ស ឈ្នួតក៏មានពណ៌ស កន្សែងពានា ក៏ពណ៌ស ជាតំណាងពណ៌បរិសុទ្ធ និងភាពស្មោះត្រង់ ចំពោះព្រះ ម៉្យាងទៀត ក៏ជាតំណាង ឋានន្តរសក្តិប្រសើរខ្ពស់ខ្ពស់ នៅក្នុងប្រទេសដែរ។ ម៉្យាងវិញទៀត នៅក្នុងជំនឿព្រាហ្មសាសនានេះ គេប្រារព្ធកំណើតរបស់មនុស្ស ដោយប្រើក្រណាត់ស រុំទារក នៅពេលប្រសូត្រឡើងភ្លាម រួចហើយក៏ធ្វើពិធីប្រសិទ្ធី ដោយផ្តិម្សៅស មួយតំណក់ នៅលើថ្ងាសទារក ចន្លោះចិញ្ចើមទាំងគូ ជាតំណាងតំណក់ជីវិតមួយ ឬតំណក់ទឹកអម្រិត ដែលប្រទានមកពីព្រះសិវៈ គីព្រះបង្កើតលោក។ នៅក្នុងព្រាហ្មញ្ញសាសនា ខ្មែរយើងមានជំនឿ ទៅលើ ព្រះសិវៈ គឺព្រះដែលបង្កកំណើត (ដោយមានយក រូបលឹង្គឥសូរ ឆ្លាក់បញ្ឈរ ពីលើយោនី ដែលឆ្លាក់ជារាងត្បាល់កិនម្សៅ ត្រងពីក្រោម ជាតំណាង ការរួមភេទ រវាងបុរសនិងស្រ្តី) ហើយមានជំនឿទៅលើ ព្រះបួនអង្គទៀត គឺ ដីទឹកភ្លើងខ្យល់ (ព្រះធរណី ព្រះគង្គា ព្រះអគ្គី ព្រះវាតា)។ លុះដល់ពេលមនុស្សប្រុសស្រី មានគូស្រករ គេច្រើនប្រសិទ្ធី ដោយប្រីម្សៅពណ៌ស បីតំណក់ ផ្តិតទៅលើថ្ងាសកូនកម្លោះនិងកូនក្រមុំ ជាសញ្ញាតំណាងក្រុមគ្រួសារ ដែលមានមុំបីជ្រុង គឺឳពុក ម្តាយ និងកូន គឺមានន័យថា គេបានទទួលពរប្រសិទ្ធីពីព្រះយ៉ាងប្រសើរ  ដើម្បីរៀបចំខ្លួនទទួលនាទី ជាប្តីប្រពន្ធ និងជាឳពុកម្តាយ ពេញសម្រុងហើយ។ នៅពេលមនុស្សស្លាប់ លាចាកលោកទៅវិញ គេធ្វើពិធីប្រសិទ្ធីលាសព យ៉ាងពិសេសមួយ ដោយយកម្សៅស មកផ្តិតគូរ ជាឆ្នូតវែងៗ តាមបណ្តោយថ្ងាសរបស់សព ហើយយកក្រណាត់ស មកគ្រប រុំសពមនុស្ស ជាតំណាងពរប្រសិទ្ធី លាងបាបកម្ម ទាំងឡាយ ដែលខ្លួនគេបានធ្វើ កាលពីនៅរស់ (Purifying the soul) ហើយវិញ្ញាណរបស់សពនោះ ក៏បានបានទទួលការអនុញ្ញាត្តិពីព្រះ អោយធ្វើដំណើរចាកចេញទៅឋានសួគ៌ ដោយសេចក្តីស្ងប់សុខ។ នៅក្នុងជំនឿនេះ ព្រាហ្ម ឬអាចារ្យ ជាអ្នកបួស និយមស្លៀកស ពាក់ស ពានាក្រមាស តែមិនកោរសក់ទេ ហើយដើម្បីបង្ហាញនូវកម្រិត ឋាននន្តរសក្តិ នៅក្នុងជួរសាសនា ពពួកព្រាហ្មទាំងនេះ ច្រើនផ្តិតម្សៅក្រហមបន្តក់ នៅលើប្រជុំចិញ្ចើម ឬគូរឆ្នូតម្សៅស ម្សៅក្រហម នៅលើថ្ងាស។ មានកាលខ្លះទៀត គេសាក់ គោរមងារ នៅលើដើមដៃ ក្បែរស្មា នៅលើខ្នងជិតកញ្ចឹងក ឬនៅលើខ្នងដៃ ដើម្បីជាការកត់សំគាល់វណ្ណៈ របស់ព្រាហ្ម នៅក្នុងជួរសាសនា។ លុះជំនឿនេះ បានចូលមកប្រឡូក ឥទ្ធិពល ជាមួយនឹងជំនឿវិញ្ញាណនិយម ដែលមាននៅលើទឹកដីខ្មែរយូរមកហើយ នោះទើបបានជាយើងឃើញមាន ការត្រងទទួលយកប្រពៃណី នៃការស្លៀកពាក់ពណ៌ស ចងអំបោះស ចារយ័ន្ត លើក្រណាត់ស ការសាក់យ័ន្ត លើស្បែកមនុស្ស  លាយឡំគ្នា កាន់តែច្រើនឡើងៗ ដោយមិនដឹងថា ពណ៌មួយណា សំខាន់ជាងមួយណា។ ខ្លះមានគំនិតប្រកាន់ថា ពណ៌ស ជាពណ៌ប្រសើរ ជាងពណ៌ក្រហម ព្រោះជាពណ៌ ដែលស្តេចផែនដី គោរពលើកតម្កើងជាងគេ។ ខ្លះទៀតថា ពណ៌ក្រហម ជាមន្តអាគម ពិតប្រាកដ ហើយសក្តិសិទ្ធិជាង ព្រោះជាតំណាងរាសី និងអំណាច មិនដូចពណ៌ស ដែលទន់ភ្លន់បរិសុទ្ធ ក្នុងធម៌ព្រះ ដោយគ្មានអំណាចតវ៉ាបាន។ ចំណែកប្រពៃណីបន្តក់ម្សៅសនៅប្រជុំចិញ្ចើម មាននៅសល់នៅក្នុងប្រទេសថៃ និងប្រទេសលាវ តែពុំសូវឃើញមាននៅក្នុងប្រទេសខ្មែរបច្ចុប្បន្នទៀតទេ។

៣/ អំពីកថាមាសនិងបន្តោងព្រះ៖

ក្រោយមកទៀត ព្រះពុទ្ធសាសនា បានធ្វើដំណើរមកដល់ ប្រទេសខ្មែរ ក្នុងយុគ សម័យអង្គរ ពេលប្រទេសខ្មែរ ចាប់ផ្តើម រុងរឿង មានសន្តិភាព។ ពលរដ្ឋយើង បានយល់ឃើញថា ពណ៌មាស (ពណ៌ស្បង់ចីពរ) ជាពណ៌ដ៏ប្រសើរ នៅក្នុង ព្រះពុទ្ធសាសនា ព្រោះជាតំណាងភាពភ្លឺត្រចះពណ្ណរាយ ដោយសីលធម៌ គុណធម៌ ភ្លឺចិញ្ចាច និងវិន័យដ៏តឹងរឹង មោះមុត។ ថ្វីបើព្រះពុទ្ធសាសនាបានប្រដៅអប់រំអោយមនុស្ស មានជំនឿលើខ្លួនឯង ពឹងលើសមត្ថភាពរបស់ខ្លួនឯង ប្រឹងប្រែងជួយខ្លួនឯង មិនអោយពឹងផ្អែក ទៅលើអរូបីជំនឿខ្លាំងពេកក៏ដោយ ក៏មនុស្សនៅតែមានការភន្ត័ច្រឡំ ច្របូកច្របល់ នូវព្រំដែននិងឥទ្ធិពលនៃសាសនាទាំងបីនេះ គឺវិញ្ញាណនិយម ព្រាហ្មសាសនា និងពុទ្ធសាសនា ហើយមិនដឹងថា គោរពមួយណា លះបង់មួយណាឡើយ។ ផ្ទុយទៅវិញ ខ្មែរយើងបានផ្លាស់ប្តូរទដ្ឋិនិងទម្លាប់ខ្លះៗ ខាងផ្នែកប្រពៃណី និងជំនឿរបស់ខ្លួន ដោយបបួលនាំគ្នាពូនសន្សំប្រាក់ ទិញមាសលឿង មាស ស ឬទិញដុំប្រាក់ យកមកឆ្នៃឆ្លាក់សូន្យធ្វើជាអលង្ការ ខ្សែក ខ្សែដៃ ខ្សែចង្កេះ ខ្សែសង្វារ ខ្សែក្រវាត់ ដោយមានព្យួរ កថាមាស ចារឆ្លាក់អក្សរយ័ន្តអាគម ឬ ធ្វើជាឡេវអាវ ជាម្ជុលខ្ទាស់ខ្ទាស់ លើមួក ឬលើអាវ ដោយមាន ចារយ័ន្តប្រសិទ្ធី លើកតម្កើង រាសីនិងឬទ្ធិអំណាច អោយកាន់តែថ្កុំថ្កើងរុងរឿង និងជោគជ័យ គ្រប់ពេលដែលគេពាក់គ្រឿងទាំងនេះ នៅលើខ្លួន។ នៅសម័យបច្ចុប្បន្ន យើងនៅតែឃើញពលរដ្ឋអភិជនខ្មែរ និងពលរដ្នសាមញ្ញទូទៅជាច្រើន ដែលនិយមពាក់ ខ្សែដៃមាស ខ្សែចង្កេះមាស ឬខ្សែកមាស ចងកថាមាស និងបន្តោងព្រះ ឬគ្រឿងប្រសិទ្ធី ដែលមានពណ៌ប្រាក់ មាស ស ឬមាសលឿង ស្ទើរគ្រប់ៗគ្នា។

ហេតុដូច្នេះហើយ ទើបយើងឃើញមានការយកអំបោះចងដៃ មានជាខ្សែពណ៌ក្រហម ឬពណ៌ស ឬជាខ្សែដៃមាសស មាសលឿង ទៅតាមចំណូលចិត្ត និងការនិយមរៀងៗខ្លួន។ ពលរដ្ឋខ្លះទៀត ក៏រត់ធ្វើតាមគ្នាព្រោងព្រាត ដោយមិនទាំងដឹងថា ហេតុអ្វីបានជាត្រូវចងអំបោះពណ៌ស ឬក្រហម ចងកថាមាស ឬចងឈ្នួតក្រហម លើដើមដៃ ឬលើក្បាល ទាំងឡាយនោះផង។ ម៉្យាងទៀត យើងក៏បាននាំគ្នាប្រមូលផ្គួបតួបីនាក់ចូលគ្នាក្នុងរូបតែមួយ ដូចជា មនុស្សដែលប្រើមន្តអាគមនៅក្នុងជំនឿវិញ្ញាណនិយម ជាមួយនឹងព្រាហ្ម ដែលស្លៀកស ទុកសក់ចងជុក និងព្រះសង្ឃ កោរសក់ស្លៀកស្បង់លឿង ហើយក៏ផ្គួបតួទាំងបីចូលគ្នា អោយក្លាយជាលោកតាឥសី ដែលស្លៀកចីពរលឿង (ដូចព្រះសង្ឃ) តែទុកសក់ចងជុក និងទុកពុកមាត់ (ដូចព្រាហ្ម) ហើយចេះប្រើសិល្ប៍មន្តអាគម សក្តិសិទ្ធិ (ដូចអ្នកតា) ជាដើម។ ចំណែកមេមត់វិញ ខ្មែរយើងបច្ចុប្បន្ន ក៏បានយករូបតំណាង របស់សាសនាបី មកបូកបញ្ចូលគ្នាដែរ គឺរូបមេមត់ មានលាបក្រែមក្រហមឆ្អៅ លើបបូរមាត់និងថ្ពាល់ ទុកសក់វែងចងគួចទៅក្រោយ (ជាមេមត់វិញ្ញាណនិយម) តែស្លៀកស ឬបង់ក្រមា (តាមបែបដូនជីក្នុងពុទ្ធសាសនា) ពាក់ខ្សែក ខ្សែឆៀង ឬខ្សែចង្កេះ ជាមាស មានបន្តោងកថាមាស ឬខ្សែដៃមានកថាមាស (ពណ៌មាសរបស់ពុទ្ធសាសនា) ហើយប្រើកន្សែងស ដណ្តប់កាយមនុស្ស ពេលប្រសិទ្ធីរំដោះគ្រោះ តម្លើងរាសី (ពណ៌សរបស់ព្រាហ្មសាសនា)។ ចំណែកដូនមេមត់ទាំងឡាយនេះ ក៏មានប្រើទាំងអំបោះស និងអំបោះក្រហម ទៅតាមកាលវេលា ដែលលោកជ្រើសរើស តាមការយល់ឃើញ របស់លោក រៀងៗខ្លួន។

ឧទាហរណ៍មួយទៀត គឺការសែនក្រុងពាលី ហោមរោង នៅពេលមុនឡើងសម្តែងរបាំបុរាណខ្មែរ ឬឡើងសៃវៀនប្រដាល់។ ការពិត ក្រុងពាលី ជាឈ្មោះរបស់តួអង្គ នៅក្នុងរឿងរាមកេរ្តិ៍ ដែលជារឿងបុរាណនៅក្នុងព្រាហ្មសាសនា មិនមែនជាឈ្មោះ របស់អ្នកតា នៅក្នុងជំនឿវិញ្ញាណនិយមទេ។ រីឯការសែនព្រេន ជាទំនៀមទម្លាប់របស់អ្នកស្រុក ដែលប្រារព្ធ ជំនឿ វិញ្ញាណនិយម ដោយមានការប្រសិទ្ធីតំកើងរាសី តំកល់ជោគជតា មានពន្លឺចន្លុះ (សម័យថ្មីគេប្រើធូបទៀន) សែនស្រា អាហារសាច់សត្វទាំងមូល និងផ្លែឈើជាគ្រឿងក្លែម។ ការប្រារព្ធពិធីប្រសិទ្ធីនេះ មិនមានទំនៀមទាក់ទង ទៅនឹង ព្រះពុទ្ធសាសនាឡើយ ព្រោះមានលាយ អាការសាហាវ (គ្រឿងស្រវឹង) និងការសម្លាប់សត្វមូល ជាគោ ជាជ្រូកព្រៃ ជាឈ្លូសប្រើស ជាដើម។ ចំណេរក្រោយមក នៅទីក្រុង យើងបានកាត់បន្ថយខ្នាតទំហំសាច់សត្វមូល ពីគោជ្រូកព្រៃឈ្លូសប្រើស មកជាមាន់ទា ទៅវិញ ដើម្បីងាយដឹកជញ្ជូនផង យកទៅសែនព្រេនផង ហើយពិធីនោះសោត ក៏ឧបកិច្ចជាខ្នាតតូចៗ តាមបែបគ្រួសារ ឬជាក្រុមតូចៗ ខុសពីបុរាណ ដែលគេប្រារព្ធម្តង ទាំងភូមិ។

នៅក្នុងមតិមួយទៀតដែលថា ការសែន ក្រុងពលី (សរសេរថា ពលី មិនមែនពាលី–ក្រុង មានន័យថា ជាស្តេច ឬមេកន្ទ្រាញនៃទឹកដីមួយ ពលី  មានន័យថា បូជា) នៅមុនពេលសម្តែងរបាំបុរាណ ឬការប្រកួតប្រដាល់ នោះមានន័យថា ជាការប្រារព្ធពិធីបូជាជូន ចំពោះលោកម្ចាស់ អ្នករក្សាទឹកដី។ បើដូច្នេះមែន ដើមឡើយ ពីបុរាណកាល ការប្រារព្ធពិធីនេះ  មានតែនៅក្រៅរោង ឯទីស្ថានកណ្តាលវាល ដែលអារក្សអ្នកតាកាន់កាប់ គ្មានរោង គ្មានដំបូល ឬរបងឡើយ។ ចំណែកទី ដែលមានរោងដំបូលគ្របដណ្តប់ យើងប្រារព្ធពិធី ជូនជំនាងផ្ទះ។ បើមានរបងពទ្ធ័ជុំវិញ យើងប្រារព្ធជូនព្រះភូមិ។ សព្វថ្ងៃ យើងបានបាត់បង់ ចំណេះតូចៗ ទាំងឡាយ ដែលទាក់ទងទៅនឹងជំនឿ និងការប្រារព្ធប្រសិទ្ធី ពីបុរាណ របស់យើង ដោយការចាប់យក ឥទ្ធិពលថ្មីទៀត ដែលនាំមកពីក្រៅ ចូលប្រទេសយើង ជាជាង។

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អត្ថបទដកស្រង់ចេញពីគេហទំព័រ Cambodian Express News (CEN)


ដោយ : សម្បត្តិ (ថ្ងៃទី 10 មីនា 2011)

Artភ្នំពេញ: ជា​រៀងរាល់ថ្ងៃ​សុក្រ​ចាប់ផ្ដើម​ពី​ថ្ងៃ​ទី​១១​ខែ​មីនា ឆ្នាំ ២០១១ វេលា​ម៉ោង​៧​យប់​ភ្ញៀវ​ទេសចរ​ជាតិ និង​អន្តរជាតិ​អាច​មាន​ឱ្យ​កាស​ទស្សនា​ការសម្តែង​ផ្ទាំង​ទស្សនីយភាព​
​ សិល្បៈ​ខ្មែរ​នៅក្នុង​បរិវេណ​សាលសន្និសីទ​ចតុមុខ​។ ការសម្តែង​សិល្បៈ​នេះ​រៀបចំ​ដោយ​នាយកដ្ឋាន​សិល្បៈ​ទស្សនីយភាព​នៃ​ក្រសួង​ វប្បធម៌​និង​វិចិត្រសិល្បៈ​សហការ​ជាមួយ​សមាគម​ទី​ភ្នាក់ងារទេសចរណ៍​កម្ពុជា​ (CATA) ក្នុង​គោលបំណង​លើកស្ទួយ​វិស័យ​សិល្បៈ​វប្បធម៌​និង​ទាក់ទាញ​អ្នកទេសចរ​បរទេស​ ។​

​មន្ត្រី​នាយកដ្ឋាន​សិល្បៈ​ទស្សនីយភាព​នៃ​ក្រសួង​វប្បធម៌​និង​ វិចិត្រសិល្បៈ បាន​ប្រាប់​ឱ្យដឹងថា​សិល្បករ​សិល្បការិនី​ជាង​៥០​នាក់​បាន​ត្រៀមលក្ខណៈ​ រួចរាល់​ហើយ​​ក្នុងការ​​​ សម្តែង​របាំ​គ្រប់​ប្រភេទ​ដូចជា​របាំ​បុរាណ របាំ​ប្រពៃណី របាំ​សម័យ នៅ​រៀងរាល់​ថ្ងៃ​សុក្រ​នៅក្នុង​បរិវេណ​សាល​មហោស្រព​ចតុមុខ​។ ក្រៅពី​នោះ​ក្រសួង​វប្បធម៌​ក៏មាន​គំរោង​បន្ថែម​ការសម្តែង​ល្ខោន​គ្រប់​ ទម្រង់​ដែល​ដកស្រង់​ចេញពី​រឿង​រាមកេរ្តិ៍​ទៀតផង​។​

​យោង​តាម​មន្ត្រី ​នាយកដ្ឋាន​សិល្បៈ​ទស្សនីយភាពនៃក្រសួងវប្បធម៌ ការរៀបចំ​សំដែង​សិល្បៈ​ទស្សនីយភាព​​នា​មាត់ទន្លេ​ក្រោយ​សាលសន្និសីទ​ចតុមុខ​ នេះ​គឺ​ដើម្បី​​ផ្សព្វ​ផ្សាយ​ ​វប្បធម៌​ខ្មែរ​ឱ្យ​កាន់តែ​ទូលំទូលាយ និង​លើកកម្ពស់​ការសំដែង​សិល្បៈ​ខ្មែរ​ដើម្បី​បង្ហាញ​អំពី​អារ្យធម៌ និង​កេរ្តិ៍មរតក​ខ្មែរ​នា​សម័យ​អង្គរ​នៅ​លើ​ឆាក​ជាតិ​និង​អន្តរជាតិ​។

​ ទន្ទឹមនឹងនោះ ការសម្តែង​នេះ​ក៏​ជួយ​បង្កើត​ការងារ​ឱ្យ​សិល្បករ​សិល្បការ​នី​ខ្មែរ​ក៏​ ដូចជា​ជួយ​លើកកម្ពស់​ការ​សំដែង​ជា​លក្ខណៈ​អាជីព​របស់​ពួកគេ​ឱ្យ​កាន់តែ​ ប្រសើរ​ផង​ដែរ​។​
​តម្លៃ​សំបុត្រ​ចូល​ទស្សនា​គឺ​១០​ដុល្លារ​សម្រាប់​ ជនបរទេស និង​១​ម៉ឺន​រៀល​សម្រាប់​ជន​ជាតិខ្មែរ​។ សម្រាប់​សមាជិក​នៃ​សមាគម​ទី​ភ្នាក់​ទេសចរណ៍​កម្ពុជា តម្លៃ​មាន​ត្រឹមតែ​៧​ដុល្លារ​ប៉ុណ្ណោះ​សម្រាប់​ជនបរទេស​៕

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